Photo of gloved hand holding a laser removal device
Laser technology has had one significant limitation since its inception in the 1960s: Users have to physically manipulate the device projecting the light to move a laser, even in medical applications as depicted here. Those limitations could soon be eliminated because of research by Case Western Reserve researchers and partners around the world, who have recently demonstrated a new way to manipulate random laser light by applying a small voltage.

New laser breakthrough

Case Western Reserve University researchers, global collaborators, first to demonstrate ‘random, transistor’ laser that can be manipulated at nanoscale

In the last half-century, laser technology has grown into a multi-billion-dollar global industry and used in everything from optical-disk drives and barcode scanners to surgica­­­­­­l and welding equipment.

Not to mention those laser pointers that entertain and confound your cat.

a photograph of a new type of laser beam, shown as red light on a blue background
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University, along with collaborators around the world, have been able to control the direction of a laser’s output beam by applying external voltage.

Now, lasers are poised to take another step forward: Researchers from the Department of Physics at Case Western Reserve University, in collaboration with partners around the world, are able to control the direction of a laser’s output beam by applying external voltage.

It is a historic first among scientists who have been experimenting with what they call “random lasers” over the last 15 years or so.

“There’s still a lot of work to do, but this is a clear first proof of a transistor random laser, where the laser emission can be routed and steered by applying an external voltage,” said Giuseppe Strangi, physics professor and the Ohio Research Scholar in Surfaces of Advanced Materials at Case Western Reserve.

Strangi, who led the research, and his collaborators recently outlined their findings in a paper published in the journal Nature Communications. The project, funded by the National Academy of Sciences of Finland, was aimed at overcoming certain physical limitations intrinsic to that second generations of lasers.

professor Giuseppe Strangi talking at his desk,
Giuseppe Strangi, physics professor and Ohio Research Scholar in Surfaces of Advanced Materials at Case Western Reserve University

Laser successes, laser limitations

The history of laser technology has been fast-paced as the unique source of light has revolutionized virtually all areas of modern life, including telecommunications, biomedicine and measurement technology.

But laser technology has also been hampered by significant shortcomings: Not only do users have to physically manipulate the device projecting the light to move a laser, but to function, they require a precise alignment of components, making them expensive to produce.

Those limitations could soon be eliminated: Strangi and research partners in Italy, Finland and the United Kingdom have recently demonstrated a new way to both generate and manipulate random laser light, including at nanoscale.

Eventually, this could lead to a medical procedure being conducted more accurately and less invasively or re-routing a fiber-optic communication line with the flip of a dial, Strangi said.

a graphic illustrating a random laser, showing a beam of light being shined into a liquid crystal medium, without mirrors inside
There are no mirrors found in the cavity of random lasers, where the photons are wrangled by shining light into a liquid-crystal medium.

‘Random’ lasers made better

So how do lasers actually work?

Conventional lasers consist of an optical cavity, or opening, in a given device. Inside that cavity is a photoluminescent material which emits and amplifies light and a pair of mirrors. The mirrors force the photons, or light particles, to bounce back and forth at a specific frequency to produce the red beam we see emitting from the laser.

“But what if we wanted to miniaturize it and get rid of the mirrors and make a laser with no cavity and go down to the nanoscale?” he asked. “That was a problem in the real world and why we could not go further until the turn of this century with random lasers.”

So random lasers, which have been researched in earnest for about 15 years, differ from the original technology unveiled in 1960 mostly in that they don’t rely on that mirrored cavity.

In random lasers, the photons emitted in many directions are instead wrangled by shining light into a liquid-crystal medium, guiding the resulting particles with that  beam of light. Therefore, there is no need for the large, mirrored structure required in traditional applications.

The resulting wave—called a “soliton” by Strangi and the researchers—functions as a channel for the scattered photons to follow out, now in an orderly, concentrated path.

Major development

One way to understand how this works: Envision a light-particle version of  the “solitary waves” that surfers (and freshwater-bound fish) can ride when rivers and ocean tide collide in certain estuaries, Strangi said.

Finally, the researches hit the liquid crystal with an electrical signal, which allows the user to “steer” the laser with a dial, as opposed to moving the entire structure.

That’s the big development by this team, Strangi said.

“That’s why we call it ‘transistor,’ because a weak signal (the soliton), controls a strong one—the laser output.” Strangi said. “Lasers and transistors have been the two leading technologies that have revolutionized the last century, and we have discovered that they are both intertwined in the same physical system.”

The researchers believe their results will bring random lasers closer to practical applications in spectroscopy (used in physical and analytical chemistry as well as in astronomy and remote sensing), various forms of scanning and biomedical procedures.

Other researchers on the project include:

  • Sreekanth Perumbilavil, Raouf Barboza and Martti Kauranen, from the Tampere University of Technology in Tampere, Finland;
  • Armando Piccardi, of the Non-Linear Optics and OptoElectronics Lab at the University Roma Tre in Rome;
  • Gaetano Assanto, who coordinated the research at both the Finnish and Italian universities; and
  • Oleksandr Buchnev, of the Optoelectronics Research Centre at the University of Southhampton, U.K.

For more information, contact Mike Scott at